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Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in albino rats

Nabila Ibrahim El Desouki,Mohamed L. Salem,Mona M. Elwan,Maysa M. Abosenna.

The present study is designed to investigate the role of certain natural cranberry and rosemary extracts to improve the histological changes in the cardiac muscle toxicity of adult male albino rats weighing 1105g (aged 3-4 weeks) induced by doxorubicin (DOX). To assessment of cardiotoxicity, the cardiac enzyme creatine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin I protein were measured. The animals were divided into 7 equal groups (10 rats /each); Gp. I: normal control rats group injected with saline solution 0.9 % intraperitoneally (i.p.) for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp. II: cranberry rats group administrated orally with 150 mg/kg/bw for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp III rosemary rats group administrated orally with 2g/kg/bw for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp IV: DOX rats group injected i.p. with 2.5mg/kg three times / week for two weeks, Gps: V, VI & VII: DOX rat groups administrated orally with cranberry or rosemary or both together in the same previous doses and duration. In the present research, the measurement of CK - MB enzyme and troponin I protein are recorded high values in the blood sera in DOX -rats group (Gp IV) in comparison with other control groups (Gps. I, II& III) and treated groups (Gps; V, VI & VII) in which the levels of CK-MP and troponin I are recorded approximately normal values as in control group (Gp. I). Histological study of the cardiac muscle of normal control rats group (Gp.I) revealed normal branched cardiomyocytes with normal striations and normal oval centrally located nuclei. Similar observations are seen in the cranberry and rosemary rat groups (Gps. II& III). In DOX rats group (Gp IV), the histological observations of the cardiac muscle demonstrated many alternations such as disarrangement, degeneration and vacuolation of the cardiomyocytes. The appearance of infiltration of inflammatory cells and necrotic areas in most cardiomyocytes as well as dilation and congestion of blood vessels in the dilated endomysia were also observed. The administration of either cranberry alone or cranberry with rosemary together to DOX rats group revealed an obvious improvement and harmony restoration of the histological structure with normal appearance of the cardiomyocytes with normal oval nuclei, and complete disappearance of dilated and congested blood vessels, more than those given rosemary only. In brief, DOX rats group given either cranberry alone or cranberry with rosemary together recorded marked recovery of the normal values of CK-MB and troponin I as well as the restoration of the architecture of the cardiac muscle to approximately normal form than those given rosemary only.

Key words: Cardiac muscle, Doxorubicin, Cranberry, Rosemary, Histology, CK-MB, Troponin I.

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