Thyroid disease and Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) are known to be pathophysiologically associated. The implications of the associations have clinically relevant implications for insulin sensitivity and adequate management requirements. Interconnectedness of common signalling pathways forms the pathophysiological basis of this association. In the case of type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease, linked genetic susceptibilities may be involved. Interactions between thyroid hormone and the basal mechanisms controlling appetite, energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity regulation / secretion governance are also significant to understand. A clearer understanding of the interactions between diabetes mellitus and thyroid hormones has the potential to assist in optimization of treatment in a select group of diabetic patients.
Diabetes Mellitus; Thyroiditis; Adipokines; Leptin