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An overview of factors responsible for geographic distribution pattern of ixodid ticks in the Sudan

SM Hassan & DA Salih.

Tick fauna in the Sudan comprises over 70 species prevalent in diverse ecological zones. Among these are the most economically important ticks in Africa, namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Amblyomma variegatum, Amblyomma lepidum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Several factors determine the dynamic changes of tick distribution in the Sudan. These are animal movement either for trade, nomadism, or migration due to civil unrest etc., habitat modification such as deforestation, large-scale mechanized cultivation and urbanization; drought and desertification, and global climate change. The accelerated change in tick distribution results in outbreaks of several tick-borne diseases. Examples of these are East Coast fever, tropical theileriosis, malignant ovine theileriosis, heartwater and babesiosis by Babesia bovis. Emergence of these diseases in districts believed to be free is alarming and has adverse effects in the process of animal resources development. This communication discusses distribution patterns of the economically important livestock ticks in the Sudan and identifies new zones where ticks have established and the possible factors determining such distribution.

Key words: Distribution, Factors, Livestock, Sudan, Ticks.

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Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology


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