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Diagnostic importance of serous fluid examination for detection of various pathological conditions - A study of 355 cases.

Rasik Nathabhai Hathila, Reena Balvantbhai Dudhat, Peeyush Kumar Saini, Sonalben Laxmanbhai Italiya, KumarBhargav Ramesh chandra Kaptan, Mitesh kumar Bhailalbhai Shah.

Background: Cytological examination of exfoliated cells is very challenging and of paramount importance for
diagnosis, staging and prognosis as the finding of cancer cells in such a specimen denotes that the patient has advanced
and incurable cancer.

Aims & Objective: To study serous effusion for various pathological conditions.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on serous effusions. Serous effusions from pleural, pericardial and
peritoneal fluid were included and all other fluids were excluded. Their clinical history and other relevant parameters
were noted. Collection was performed with 18-gauge needle under local anaesthesia and sterile conditions. When
delay, samples were stored at 2-6 ͦC. Conventional smear and or Cytospin method were performed. Ether alcohol (wet
fixed) and air dried smears were used. H & E stain, papanicolaou stain and MGG stain were done.

Results: Out of total 355 cases, 186 were of pleural fluid, 164 of peritoneal fluid and 5 were of pericardial fluid. 288
cases were benign, 24 cases were malignant effusion, 17 cases were suspicious of malignancy and 26 cases were
degenerated. Transudate, haemorrhagic and straw coloured fluid were more common.

Conclusion: Benign effusions are common in younger whereas malignant effusions are common in older people. A
combined approach to morphology by may-grunwald giemsa, papanicolaou with haematoxylin and eosin stain was
better than individual method. Recurrent hemorrhagic effusions are more common in malignant effusions.
Conventional smear method can yield good result. Scattered cells are indicative of benign effusions and clusters, 3 D
balls, papillary patterns indicate malignant effusions.

Key words: Haematoxylin and Eosin; Papanicolaou; May Grunwald Giemsa; Serous Fluid Examination

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