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A study of risk factors associated with HIV patients and in general population - A case control study in Ahmedabad city

Krunal Modi, Niti Talsania, Jaydeep Devaliya.

Background: The global estimates of HIV/AIDS cases and especially the growing number of women and children being infected and affected by it, raises serious concern. In the absence of a vaccine or cure for HIV infection, our only option is to promote awareness and sexual behaviour change for primary prevention of HIV.

Aims & Objective: (1) To study the Socio-demographic and the Clinico-epidemiological profile of HIV positive people (cases) and general population (controls); (2) To study the various risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS transmission in HIV positive people and general population.

Material and Methods: It was a case-control study in Infectious Disease clinic. A structured, open ended and pretested proforma was used to interview HIV positive and negative patients attending Infectious Disease clinic, Ahmedabad. Prior verbal and written consent was taken. This study included 600 HIV positive cases and 600 HIV negative controls of all ages attending clinic during January-December 2011.

Results: The study included 600 patients in cases and 600 patients in control groups. Total 466 (77.66%) patients were in sexually and economically reproductive age group of 25-49 years in case group and in control they were 454 (75.66). Maximum 83.3% were positive through hetero-sexual route and 72% were having one or more clinical symptoms in case group. Unsafe sexual practices were more in cases 133 (22.2%) than control 66 (11%). High risk behaviour was more in cases 49 (8.2%) than control 13 (2.2%).

Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need for strict adherence to their Highly Active Ante-retro viral Therapy (HAART) & awareness about disease in order to have better prevention of spreading disease in community.

Key words: Socio-Demographic Profile; HIV/AIDS; Case-Control Study

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