During the last century, tremendous advancements have been achieved in the field of plant tissue culture (PTC) with respect to adopting newer technologies, ideas, and their implementation. Since the beginning, artificial production of plants was insisted by scientists, to minimalize dependence on natural resources. Increased demand for yield and disease resistant plants stipulated the large-scale production of plants, which brought large-scale production to light, as a new source producing thousands of plants using an explant. As a result of globalization, countries around the world have initiated commercialization of PTC and this became a global phenomenon, due to the huge turnover and demand from developing countries. Through the modification of micropropagation techniques, Indian PTC industry has been successful in sectors such as agriculture, medicine, and forestry. Measures such as in situ conservation, germplasm conservation and exchange, pilot studies, and their protocol refinement have revolutionized the Indian PTC industry. This review deliberates on the PTC commercialization in India and contemporary world, research and development status, and constraints associated with PTC industry. Thus, we have reviewed the problems associated with Indian PTC industry and suggest few aspects that may help in the restoration of the same. In this review, using keyword searches over 465 results appeared, of which 60 studies were considered relevant and thus carefully reviewed in the present article.
Key words: Plant tissue culture (PTC), commercialization, micropropagation, in situ conservation, germplasm conservation, pilot studies, protocol refinement