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Faecal DNA Testing for Detection of Colorectal Carcinoma: A Prospective Case Control Study

Mahim Koshariya, Alex Sharon, M.C. Songra, Shikha Shukla, Vidhu Khare, Kunal Vaidya, Fahad Ansari.

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Background: Using Faecal DNA test to detect these aberrant methylations and mutations in DNA shed from the colonic cells could help in detection of pre-cancerous or early stage of colorectal cancer which would improve the mortality rate. Guaiac based chemical detection of faecal occult blood (gFOBT) is one of the non-invasive screening methods but with lower sensitivity as not every colorectal cancerous lesion bleeds.
Aims :To compare the sensitivity and specificity of stool DNA test against Faecal Occult Blood Test.
Method: This was a prospective case control study to compare the sensitivity and specificity of Faecal DNA test with gFOBT as to which test would make a better screening tool for colorectal cancer.
Result: The sensitivity of Faecal DNA Test was found to be 86% whereas the sensitivity of gFOBT was found to be 66% and specificity for gFOBT was 86% compared to 72% for Faecal DNA test.
Conclusion: Based on several studies including the present study it could be concluded that there is sufficient data to include Faecal DNA test as a viable option for CRC screening although testing stool for molecular markers is an evolving technology

Key words: Colorectal cancer (CRC), screening, Faecal DNA test/ Stool DNA test (sDNA), Guaiac based faecal occult blood (gFOBT), Sensitivity, Specificity

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