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A retrospective study of prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from various clinical samples received at microbiology department of a tertiary care hospital

Rosy Parmar, Sachin Patel, Asha Mandalia, Hemanshi Maheta, Neha Baldaniya, Shivani Prajapati.


Background: Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) is particularly common in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), with important clinical consequences regarding their spread and treatment options. The prevalence of drug-resistant cases is increasing globally. MDR has become a major problem for the treatment of bacterial infections and is becoming greatest challenge to public health. Quantification of the prevalence and the common antimicrobial coresistance patterns of MDR GNB (MDRGNB) isolates would have important implications for patient care.

Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done from January 2021 to December 2021 at the Department of Microbiology, GMERS Medical College and Hospital, sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Species identification was done by bacterial growth and standard biochemical reaction. Drug susceptibility testing of isolates was done by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. MDR was defined as acquired resistance to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. Stool samples were not included in this study.

Results: The 1-year records of a total of pathogens were studied. The highest number of pathogens were isolated from blood cultures (19%), followed by wound swabs (19%) then urine (10.3%) then sputum and pleural fluid (8.5%). The most frequently isolated pathogens were Klebsiella spp. (32.8%), Escherichia coli (28.8%), Acinetobactor spp. (20.8%), and Pseudomonas spp. (9.6%). Gram-negative isolates exhibited high overall resistance to all used antibiotic classes. All isolates showed 100% susceptibility to colistin.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the most common MDR-GNB isolate is Klebsiella Pneumonii in intensive care units department in blood, pus, and sputum sample. The study findings will be part of a strict antibiotic stewardship (AMS) program and also indicate that AMS should begin at primary and secondary health-care centers to prevent antimicrobial resistance.

Key words: Multidrug Resistance; Gram-Negative Bacteria; Klebsiella; Escherichia coli

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