Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) leads to serious consequences, such as increased hospital stay, cost of treatment, and increased risk of death compared to patients discharged without developing it. A lack of studies on strategies to prevent this infection in the Saudi population led the study group to conduct this study. The present study aims at assessing the epidemiology and factors associated with SSI among patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out between March 2015 and June 2020 among hospitalized patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The random sampling technique was employed to collect data from 120 subjects who underwent a surgical operation.
Results: Among a total of 120 participants who had surgery in Riyadh in the last 5 years, the incidence of SSI was found as 1.7%. The majority of patients had elective surgeries (93.3%), followed by patients who had general anesthesia (91.7%). The majority of them had ASA score II, and most of them received preoperative prophylaxis antibiotics (84.2%). All patients who had SSI were diabetic or had hyperglycemia (100%). The study found no statistically significant relationship between SSI vs age (p-value ≈ 0.140), wound class (p-value ≈ 0.787), and length of hospital stay (p-value ≈ 0.225). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between SSI versus comorbidity (p-value ≈ 0.871) and be ing a smoker (p-value ≈ 0.553).
Conclusion: In the present study, the majority of patients had a clean surgical site, with most of them were administered with preoperative prophylaxis antibiotics. All patients who had surgical site infection surgical site infection (SSI) were diabetic or had hyperglycemia. There was no statistical relationship between surgical site infection SSI and age, wound class, length of hospital stay, comorbidity, and being a smoker.
Key words: Surgical site infection, diabetes, risk factors, causes, epidemiology