Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal impairment and associated risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus positive patients.
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus positive patients at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot referral Hospital. Demographic and other data were collected using structured questionnaires. Body mass index, urine protein, CD4 count, hemoglobin, electrolyte, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine were measured. Data was entered into EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with renal impairment.
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve (who didnâ€™t take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 34.69 (± 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment.
Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of renal impairment in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals with higher rates among highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals. It also indicated the importance of assessing of renal function in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals in general and in highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve and with low CD4 count in particular. Further cohort studies with larger sample size are also important to establish the prevalence rate of renal impairment.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Renal Impairment, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
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