Newcastle disease (ND) which is endemic and prevalent in Nigeria causes high mortality in indigenous poultry. The most practical means of vaccinating indigenous poultry is via feed some of which have been found to negatively affect the efficacy of live vaccines. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of three staple grains as delivery systems for La Sota or V4 vaccines. ND virus (NDV) La Sota or V4 vaccines were administered orally, in ground grains, brans or water to seronegative chicks at 5, 7 and 9 weeks (WK) of age. The NDV Antibody titres in the sera of vaccinated and unvaccinated chicks were determined before and after vaccination by the haemagglutination inhibition test. The time it took the chicks to drink vaccines in water and consume the feeds incorporated with the vaccines during each vaccination was determined. Two WK after the last vaccination at 9 WK of age vaccinated and unvaccinated chicks were challenged intramuscularly with Hert’s 33 NDV. The signs and lesions observed were recorded and protection rates calculated. Before vaccination at 5 WK of age, 100% of the chicks had no detectable NDV Abs but at 11 WK of age all the chicks had NDV Ab in their sera. The titre was highest in chicks vaccinated with V4 (5.0+3.5 Log2) and with La Sota (6.4+2.4 Log2) vaccine via water. The Ab titre for chicks vaccinated with feed was highest when Guinea corn Bran (GCB) was used as vehicle for V4 vaccine (4.5+3.4 Log2) and GCB for La Sota vaccine (3.2+1.3 Log2). It took chicks less than eight minutes (min) to drink La Sota and V4 administered in drinking water, 30 min to consume La Sota administered through ground guinea corn (GGC) and 2 hours (h) when administered through guinea corn bran (GCB). Signs and lesions similar to viscerotropic velogenic form of ND were observed in challenged chicks. All chicks vaccinated with La Sota in water and 90% of the chickens vaccinated with V4 in water were protected from challenge. Ninety per cent of chicks vaccinated with La Sota in maize bran (MZB), ground maize (GMZ) or GGC were protected. Water was the best vehicle for administration of V4 and La Sota vaccines and La Sota was able to protect 90 % of challenged chicks when administered through MZB, GMZ or GGC. The grains used in the present study need further processing to remove possible antiviral substances that may be present and improve palatability. Further experimental trials using large number of birds and further processed grains and brans are necessary to further determine the suitability of Guinea corn (GC), Maize (MZ) and Millet (ML) and their brans for the routine vaccination of indigenous chickens against ND using V4 vaccine in Nigeria.
Brans; Grains; Newcastle disease; Vaccination; Water
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