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Analysis of pattern of antimicrobial usage in children of age 1 to 12 years with respiratory tract infections admitted in pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital

Vishwanath M, Arpitha D, Murgesh JV.




Abstract

Background: Children are more prone to suffer from recurrent infections of respiratory tract due to their immature developed airway, lungs, and immunity, which makes lower respiratory tract infections as one of the most commonly encountered diseases in PICU and one of the leading causes of death among children below 5 years of age. Antimicrobials are one of the commonly prescribed drugs for respiratory tract infections which act as double edged sword as it has saved many lives from dreadful infections and also its injudicious use can give rise to antimicrobial resistance that can endanger many patients’ lives.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the pattern of antimicrobial drugs used in in-patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit with respiratory tract infections and to identify the factors to decide the selection of antibiotics.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Pediatrics along with Pharmacology Department of VIMS, Bellary. After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee, the study was conducted. Patients were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent from the patient’s informants. Children of age group 1−12 years, suffering from infections of respiratory tract admitted in PICU who were treated with antibiotics were analyzed in our study. Based on the clinical presentation, the diagnosis of RTI was done by treating pediatrician.

Results: In our institute, children of under 5 age group, that is, 2−5 years, about 40% of patients were hospitalized in PICU. Male patient’s preponderance was present about 57.5%. Common most respiratory infection seen was bronchopneumonia (46.5%), followed by lower respiratory tract infection (20.5%) and lobar pneumonia (14.5%). All of these patients were involved with other associated conditions, namely, febrile convulsions, severe anemia, and respiratory distress.

Conclusion: Prescribing pattern in pediatric intensive care unit showed the preference of using two antibiotics to treat respiratory tract infections. Ceftriaxone and combination of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid were preferred as first-line antibiotics. Amikacin and vancomycin were used as secondline drugs. Piperacillin, tazobactam, and vancomycin were the next line antimicrobial agents. These drugs were given to patients by parenteral routes such as IV and IM.

Key words: Respiratory Tract Infections, Pediatric ICU, Antimicrobial Agents, Children, Prescribing Pattern






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