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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infections among health care workers at the Bulle Hora Woreda Governmental Health Institutions, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia

Amha Geberemicheal, Aschalew Gelaw, Feleke Moges, Mulat Dagnaw.


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Abstract
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are at a great risk of occupational exposure with blood borne pathogens like Hepatitis B virus. The risk of occupational exposure to such infection has been the concerns of HCWs for years. However, there were scarcity of information on prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B virus infection in the study area.
Objective: This study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Hepatitis B virus infections among Health care workers.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs and NHCWs in the Health Institutions of Bulle Hora Woreda, Southern Oromia from March to April 2012. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics and other possible risk factors. Venous blood samples were collected from 220 HCWs and NHCWs. Serums were tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using rapid test kit. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version16. Logistic regression analysis was done to see an association between dependent and independent variable and odds Ratio was used to measure strength of the association. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Result: Of the 110 health care and 110 non health care workers, hepatitis B virus was detected in 8 (7.3%) and 1 (0.9%) of health care and non health care workers, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rate of HBV (OR = 8.54, 95% CI: 1.05-69.55; P= 0.045) in HCWs compared to non health care workers. Needle stick injuries and mucocutaneous exposure were high 25 (22.7%), 21 (19.1%), respectively.
Conclusions: The prevalence of HBV infection among HCWs was higher compared to NHCWs. It also found that needle stick injuries and sharp injuries were high, and yet only a small percentage of HCWs were reported, they had vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection. There is an urgent need to focus efforts on mitigating transmission through improving the work environment and making use of the available vaccine for HCWs who are susceptible

Keywords: Health care works, Hepatitis B virus, Bulle Hora

Key words: Health care works, Hepatitis B virus, Bulle Hora



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