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Antimutagenic and chemopreventive potentialities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract

Sreemoyee Chatterjee, Nandini Goswami, Pradeep Bhatnagar, Madhu Kumar, Ashok Kumar.

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Phytochemicals present in plant foods have been linked to reduce several chronic diseases including cancer. They have gained popularity as safer and cheaper alternative to conventional drugs. We studied the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of Trigonella foenum graecum (L.) seed (TFGS) extract using Salmonella microsomal assay and two stage skin papilloma model in mice, respectively. Different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g/100 ml of distilled water) of the aqueous seed extract of fenugreek were screened against the potent mutagens to evaluate its antimutagenicity using Salmonella assay. Besides, the above mentioned antimutagenicity method, the anticarcinogenicity study was carried out at chromosomal aberration and micronuclei level in Swiss Albino mice by mouse two stage papillomagenesis. The dose level of the study was 400 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract. Significant reduction in revertant colony count in the seed extract treated group compared to positive control group was obtained. At 20 g/100 ml concentration of TFGS, a strong inhibition rate was observed in both TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella against different mutagens. A clear dose dependent fall on chromosomal aberration in bone marrow cells of mice and micronuclei count was recorded in the treated group. Animals treated with TFGS extract at 400 mg/kg/day throughout all the stages of papillomagenesis showed a significant reduction in the total chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei score.

Key words: Ames test; Anticarcinogenicity; Antimutagenicity; Chromosomal aberration; Micronuclei; Papillomagenesis

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