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Physicochemical, phytochemical, and GC–MS analysis of leaf and fruit of Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni

Akshata Pai, Chandrakala Shenoy.

Abstract
Medicinal plants have been used to treat various illnesses for decades. The present study supports the physicochemical, phytochemical, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of the methanolic extract of Pouteria campechiana leaves and fruits, in order to propose that the bona fide plant material is suitably for traditional use. The physicochemical evaluations and fluorescence analysis were determined according to standard protocols. The phytochemical constituents were carried out by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The GC–MS analysis was carried out to identify the compounds present. The physicochemical parameters revealed that the total ash content of P. campechiana leaves is more than the fruit. The water-soluble ash value of P. campechiana leaves is less than the acid-soluble ash value of the leaf, but the water-soluble ash value of P. campechiana fruit is greater than the acid-soluble ash value of the fruit. The water-extractive value of P. campechiana leaves and fruit is better when compared to the alcohol-extractive value. Moisture content, swelling index, and foaming index were found to be greater in the leaves than the fruit. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of various phytoconstituents. Quantitative analysis revealed that the leaf extract consists of high phenolic compounds followed by total flavonoids and total tannin than the fruit extract. The total alkaloid was found to be higher in the fruit extract than the leaf extract. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis of the leaves showed the presence of elements such as N, O, Cl, K, Ca, and C and fruits showed the presence of N, O, K, and C. The GC–MS analysis of P. campechiana leaf and fruit reveals the presence of 9 and 12 compounds, respectively. The results of the present study provide apparent information of the plant and also serve as an analytical tool for appropriate identification. Hence, this plant exhibits rich phytopharmaceutical importance.

Key words: Pouteria campechiana, physico-chemical parameters, phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis.


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