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Review Article

SRP. 2011; 2(1): 8-18

Occurrence, Complications, and Interventions of Diabetes: A New Understanding of an Old Problem

Rambhade SK, Singh S, Goswami RB, Rambhade A.


This review aims to summarize the major advances of the preceding year and to put them
into the context of current opinion on diabetes mellitus. Despite the advent of life-prolonging
insulin for the treatment of diabetes, the appearance and progression of many of the disabling
complications associated with this disease cannot be prevented through the administration of
insulin. Clinically, the onset and rate of progression of diabetic complications, including cataract,
corneal epitheliopathy, microangiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy, appear to be
dependent upon both the duration and the severity of the diabetes. This review summarizes the
specific pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular complications for which clinical therapies have
been developed, including the polyol pathway, advanced glycation end products, protein kinase
C, vascular epithelium growth factor, and the superoxide pathway. The review further focuses on
therapies for these targets that are currently available or are undergoing late-stage clinical trials.

Key words: Diabetes Diabetic complications Oxidative stress Polyol pathway Protein kinase C

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