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A comprehensive review on effective role of Apple polyphenols in the treatment of Obesity, Diabetes and Liver dysfunctions with some possible molecular mechanisms

Md. Mohabbulla Mohib, Nafij Imtiyaj Chowdhury, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Salma Khan, Kazi Nafis Ullah, Waich Mahmud, Liyad Salem Mridu, Abida Tisha, Md. Abu Taher Sagor.

Abstract
Aim/Background: Recent studies suggest that chronic illness like obesity, diabetes, vascular inflammation and liver diseases are on the rise. However, daily consumption of fruits and vegetables may prevent these ever-increasing chronic and non-communicable diseases. Polyphenol based treatments have long been evaluated and demonstrated to cure, prevent and manage chronic conditions, and most importantly have recently gained popularity as the alternative therapeutic option throughout the world.
Methods: In this current study, a detail search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct and Google scholar, and brought together the articles on Apple Polyphenols (AP), obesity, diabetes-mediated liver dysfunction and using the similar key words. Results: Several biochemical studies have already reported that AP possess strong anti-oxidant properties, thereby, reduce free radical generation capacity, prevent oxidative mediated organ dysfunctions, decrease lipid peroxidation products and advanced glycation end products. Furthermore, when applied in in-vitro models, AP reduce harmful lipid accumulation, control glucose level and help in cell survival. Besides, cellular fuels like AMPK, PGC and PPAR have been found to be enhanced; concurrently, unwanted harmful cytokines such as NF-κB, TLRs and AP-1 are also observed abated. In human subjects, AP based treatment approaches have been performing extremely well in reducing harmful lipids, preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, controlling blood glucose level, preventing drug-induced hepatic dysfunctions and minimizing ADR related problems.
Conclusion: Overall, AP derived phytonutrients should extensively be considered for the safety of larger clinical evaluations and as prospective lead compounds for further drug design and development process.

Key words: Obesity, diabetes, NAFLDs, biogenesis, fat metabolizing genes, AP



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The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
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