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Socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and physical activity influence on nutritional status of the diabetics: a cross sectional study

Hasan Mahfuz Reza, Md. Rezaul Karim, Md. Abdus Samad.

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic, debilitating disease, is associated with a range of severe complications which include cardiovascular disease, renal disease and blindness. Demographic and epidemiological evidences suggest that the incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Diabetes mellitus in people of all ages is reaching epidemic proportions in Bangladesh. The main objective of this cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate that nutritional status of the diabetic patients influence by socio-economic level, dietary habits and physical activity.A total of 282 diabetic outpatients were recruited using Simple Random Sampling technique from three referral diabetic centers namely-Kushtia Diabetic Shomity, Bheramara Diabetic Shomity and Diabetic Shomity Kumarkhali, Kushtia, Bangladesh. The nutritional status of each participant was screened. Direct method of nutritional assessment including anthropometric measurement, biochemical measurement, clinical assessment and dietary method was carried out. Socio economic data were also collected. Data were analyzed using the computer program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.The result reveals that51.1% (n=144) of the total participants were male and 48.9% (n=138) were female. About 28.4% population studied were between 51-60 years, 94.7% married, 44.7% were unemployed and 50.4% were resided in urban area. Based on Body Mass Index (BMI), mean BMI of male was 23.32 3.47 and that of female was 25.83 4.46, half of the respondents (48.9%) had an acceptable nutritional status with a BMI between 18.5-24.9 (62.3% male; 37.7% female) whilst 4.6% of the respondents were underweight with BIMs below 18.5. The female who were observed were 22 (88.0%) and the male were 3 (12.0%) showing a very great prevalence of obesity (BMI more than 30.0). Study showed that 98 (34.7%) respondents bear diabetes from their family and 147 (52.1%) respondents have family history of hypertension The mean blood hemoglobin level was 12.491.47g/dl, in which male hemoglobin level was 12.851.48g/dl and of female was 12.111.36g/dl. The result shows that about 29.8% (n=84) patients had no formal education; among them more were female 65.5% (n=55). More of the patient (50.7%) had family member of 4-6. About 33.0% of the studied patients were low-income level (25.9% were from upper-lower and 7.1% were from lower socio-economic status). Among 37.6% (n=106) overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) diabetic patients more were female 56.6% (n=60) and 55.7% (n=59) were unemployed. So, female sex, lower educational status, more family member, low monthly family income group and unemployment are associated with malnutrition. Unemployed housewives represented to have both extremes of nutritional status- under nutrition and over nutrition. In the study, most of the patient 126 (44.7%) were unemployed, among them almost all the patient 124 (98.4%) were female. Diabetic care seeking by rural people and female appeared encouraging emphasizing the need of decentralization of diabetic care center to periphery.

Key words: diabetes; malnutrition; body mass index; hemoglobin; medical nutrition therapy



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