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Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes, an anthropometric and biochemical evaluation - A cross-sectional study from Central India

Vikas Jain, Sachin Singh Yadav, Jyoti Jain.

Background: Diabetes represents a spectrum of metabolic disorder which has become a major health challenge, worldwide. Diabetes caused 1.5 million deaths in 2012, and 80% of all new cases of diabetes expected to appear in the developing countries by 2025. In India, diabetes is expected to increase from 40.6 million in 2006 to 79.4 million by 2030. 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance have the metabolic syndrome (MS). Clinical evidence indicates a stronger association of diabetes with central obesity than general obesity.

Objectives: The objectives of this study is to compare the association of different anthropometric measurements and biochemical findings in type 2 diabetes patients with or without MS and evaluate the practicability and usefulness of these measurements in clinical practice and public health.

Materials and Methods: A total of 60 proven cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, in the Department of Physiology, GRMC, Gwalior (MP). The biochemical investigations were done in the Department of Biochemistry of the Institution. After obtaining consent, the patients were selected for the study and a detailed history was taken as per predesigned questionnaires; then, they were subjected for biochemical analysis of fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile.

Results: Of 60 patients, 40% were diabetic for 710 years (62% men and 38% women), we included 30 patients from 40-45 years age group (mean age 42.5 1.5 years) and 30 patients from 45-50 ( mean age 48.2 1.42 years). Body mass index was normal in 50% and 50% overweight, and abdominal obesity was in 82% (waist circumference = 94.28 6.17 cm). Mean waist-hip ratio of 65% was 0.96 0.08, 51% of men (0.98 0.04) and 49% of women (0.94 0.10). 55% (33) of patients had MS (64% of female and 50% of male). The mean values of anthropometric measurements were statically significantly higher in MS group. Biochemical parameters were higher in women, and all the biochemical parameters measured except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in MS group.

Conclusion: The presence of MS in diabetic patients is associated with higher prevalence of coronary vascular disease. Anthropometric findings of obesity and biochemical abnormalities were significantly associated with MS in type 2 diabetes patients.

Key words: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Waist Circumference; Waist-hip Ratio; Metabolic Syndrome

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