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Association of plasma glucose, serum lipid profile, and liver enzymes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - A case–control study

Nirmal George, Abhilash Kannan, Kala S N, Abhaya Prasannarajan.

Abstract
Background: The prevalence and complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have increased dramatically over the past decade. The pandemic of lifestyle disorders and their role in the development of NAFLD encourage studies in this aspect.

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the association of laboratory parameters such as plasma glucose (fasting, postprandial, and glycated hemoglobin), serum lipid profile, and liver enzymes with NAFLD.

Materials and Methods: Our case–control study enrolled 150 participants [81 cases (sonological evidence of fatty infiltration of liver) and 79 controls] in a period of 2 years. All laboratory investigations were done in the central laboratory of the institution using appropriately standardized techniques. Institutional ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were analyzed using free software R®, nominal variables were compared using independent sample t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test; categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Higher number of male participants (56.3%) enrolled in the study. Significant difference in total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = 0.002), TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.001), and TG/ HDL (P < 0.001) was observed between cases and controls. Significant association with NAFLD was observed for TG (P = 0.001), TC (P < 0.001), dyslipidemia (P = 0.02), aaspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.03), and ALT (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: High prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes were observed among participants undergoing voluntary health checkup. Significant difference in TC, LDL, TG, TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and ALT was observed between cases and controls. Significant association with NAFLD was observed for TG, TC, dyslipidemia, AST and ALT.

Key words: NAFLD; Lipid Profile; Liver Enzymes; Plasma Glucose



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