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A comparative study on visual evoked potential in normotensive and hypertensive individuals

Arunkumar Balakrishnan, Nirmala Natarajan.


Background: Hypertensive retinopathy is one of the most common complications of hypertension. Hypertension can cause changes in vascular endothelium including hyalinization, which can lead to demyelination of the optic nerve and results in conduction abnormalities in the visual pathway. Visual evoked potential (VEP), a non-invasive neurophysiological technique, is useful in detecting the changes in functional integrity in the visual pathway. The present study was done to compare the changes in the VEP between normotensive and hypertensive individuals.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to compare the VEP changes among normotensive and hypertensive individuals.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects (BP ≥140/90 mmHg, according to JNC-7 classification) with normal visual acuity. VEP was recorded using the pattern reversal stimulation technique. The peak latencies of the waves N75, P100, and N145 were measured.

Results: There was a statistically significant prolonged N75 (P < 0.05), P100 (P < 0.05), and N145 (P < 0.05) latencies in hypertensive individuals when compared to normotensives.

Conclusion: VEP changes occur in hypertensive patients before the development of hypertensive retinopathy. Thus, VEP can be used as a routine screening test for hypertensive individuals, and it can also be used as a better prognostic tool during the treatment of hypertensive retinopathy.

Key words: Hypertension; Hypertensive Retinopathy; Visual Evoked Potential

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