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Int J One Health. 2018; 4(1): -

Brucella seropositivity in chicken and risk factors for Brucella infection at the animal-human interface in Anambra State, Nigeria

Joseph Ikechukwu Onunkwo, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Ugochinyere Juliet Njoga, Emmanuel C Ezeokafor, Samuel Okezie Ekere.


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Brucellosis is an important bacterial zoonosis devastating both animal and human populations in many parts of the world. A seroepidemiological study of avian Brucella infection was conducted to determine the disease prevalence, risk factors and hence the role of chicken in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Anambra State, Nigeria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rose Bengal Plate Test was used to test for Brucella antibody in sera samples collected from 410 chickens surveyed. Interview schedule was used to elicit information on the socioeconomic status, awareness of brucellosis and predisposing practices of poultry farmers, live bird sellers and poultry carcass processors in the study area.
RESULTS: An overall seroprevalence of 3% was recorded. Sex (female), free-range management system, breed (indigenous breed) and mix farming were the determinants of avian brucellosis in the State. Risk factors that may enhance human Brucella infection at the animal-human interface are: non-use of personal protective clothing; poor awareness on brucellosis and methods of the disease spread, prevention or control; cohabitation with animals and eating while on duty.
CONCLUSION: Chicken may be among the reservoirs of Brucella infection in Anambra State. There is urgent need for an effective control programme against brucellosis in the study area, using a coordinated One Health approach bearing in mind the public health and economic consequences of brucellosis.

Key words: Brucella, Brucella antibodies, Brucella infection, chickens, humans, risk factors

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