At the level of the mammary alveoli, copious milk production depends on the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells and the biochemical and structural differentiation of these cells after parturition. The present histological study was conducted on mammary gland tissue of buffaloes. The samples were categorized into three stages as lactating, nonlactating (involution stage) and mastitis. Stroma was found to be comprised of interalveolar, interlobular and interlobar connective tissue. The amount of stromal tissue varied during different stages of lactation. It is believed that production differences within or between dairy breeds are also determined by differences in the capacity of alveolar cells to differentiate or to maintain an adequate state of differentiation. Mastitis that lead to losses in mammary function are directly related to disruption of alveolar cell integrity, sloughing of cells, induced apoptosis, and increased appearance of poorly-differentiated cells. Thus the elevated neutrophil migration evoked to fight inflammation can inadvertently rendered alveolar epithelial cells non-secretory. A challenge to future researchers will be to devise mastitis treatments and therapies that prevent and/or repair damage to alveolar structure and maximize subsequent secretory cell differentiation for that it is necessary to understand the histomorphology of mastitis in buffalo as they has been an integral part of livestock agriculture for over the period of 5000 years and also an indispensable source of employment to the marginal farmers and landless labourers in many countries of Asia.
Key words: Baffolo, Mammary gland, Lactating, Non-lactating, Mastitis, Apoptosis