In this study, forty-nine under five years, male & female Sudanese children, presented with protein energy malnutrition (PEM, Kwash) according to the WHO criteria have been studied for their thyroid function and other biochemical Parameters. Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), as a thyroid function indicators, the study included determination of Thyroglobulin (TG), Ferritin, Protein Moreover, Hemoglobin levels in serum. The study was done in different hospitals in Khartoum state. Patients being assessed & examined by pediatricians using a unified clinical protocol and a questionnaire for patients characteristics. Thyroid hormones and Ferritin were measured by a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique in 49 children with malnutrition as well as a control group of 20 healthy children. When the results of malnourished children compared to normal children showed that; 22% of malnourished children have severe hypothyroidism (T4 < 30 mol/l) and (T3 < 0.5 mol/l) as the reference range (50 150mol/l) and (0.8 3 mol/l) respectively. The mean level of TSH for patients was within the normal range but it was lower than the mean of TSH levels for controls. The mean values of TG and Ferritin for patients was higher than that of controls. Protein and Hemoglobin values showed low levels in Patients and negative clinical correlation between Ferritin and Hemoglobin has been found. Our conclusion of this study states that, malnutrition has severe effects on thyroid function.
Key words: Nuclear Medicine, Thyroid Function