Home|Journals|Articles by Year Follow on Twitter

Directory for Medical Articles
 

Open Access

Review Article



Morphometry and expression of immunoglobulins-containing plasma cells in the Harderian glands of Birds

Mir Rubayet Jahan, Md Nabiul Islam, Md Zahirul Islam Khan, Akie Yanai, Koh Shinoda.

Abstract
Johann Jacob Harder first described the Harderian gland in 1694 in deer. It is found in most terrestrial animals and is located within the variable aspects of the orbit. It is believed that this gland is involved in diverse functions. Among these, it has been held to be a site of immune response, a source of thermoregulatory lipids and pheromones, act as photoprotective organ as well as part of a retinal-pineal axis. In birds, this glad was reported first in sparrow in 1918. The Harderian gland is covered by capsule and the connective tissue septa that divide the gland into numerous unequal-sized lobes and lobules. Plasma cells are found in the interacinar space and the lumina of lobules. The recent studies suggest that the Harderian gland act as an immunopotent organ in birds, and that the gland in scavenging birds contains more immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells due to their scavenging nature. Moreover, this gland shows considerable species/strain differences in terms of macro anatomy, microanatomy as well as in the dynamics of immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells among different birds. In this review, these species and strain differences are discussed based on recent studies and several goals of future research are identified.

Key words: Harderian gland, birds, species differences, Anatomy, Immunohistochemistry


Full-text options

Full-text Article




Advertisement
American Journal of Diagnostic Imaging

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE NOW




ScopeMed.com
BiblioMed Home
Follow ScopeMed on Twitter
Author Tools
eJPort Journal Hosting
About BiblioMed
License Information
Terms & Conditions
Privacy Policy
Contact Us

The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
ScopeMed is a Database Service for Scientific Publications. Copyright ScopeMed Information Services.