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Contribution of storage conditions of antibiotics in pharmacies on efficacy loss of Amoxicillin and Tetracycline against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the city of Lome.

Judith Abla Estelle GNAMEY,Banfitebiyi GAMBOGOU,Messanh KANGNI DOSSOU,Kokou ANANI,Yaovi AMEYAPOH.

Abstract
Background
The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is now a public health issue. The causes of such resistance are multiple and some are related to non-compliance with recommended doses of antibiotics. The storage conditions of antibiotics can have an impact on their effectiveness. Indeed, at a temperature above 30 C and a relative humidity above 60%, pharmaceutical presentations of antibiotics may lose their doses. The goal of our study was to evaluate the existence of a correlation between failures of antibiotic therapy and poor conservation of marketed antibiotics in the city of Lome.

Methods
We had prospected 5 pharmacies in the city of Lome and have collected in each 4 pharmaceutical presentations of antibiotics.These antibiotics are Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol. Also, we isolated in two private laboratories in the city of Lome, 5 hospital strains of these following bacteria: Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Alkalescens-Dispar, Klebsiella pneumonia and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Reference strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were used for analysis control.We carried out a prospective investigation and an analysis of the effectiveness of the antibiotics by the method of diffusion in agar medium.

Results
The survey results showed that all pharmacies surveyed had an ambient temperature above what is recommended. In vitro analysis of the efficacy of Amoxicillin on hospital strains of Escherichia coli revealed some resistances.
Also, the in - vitro analysis of the Tetracycline on reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was found to be ineffective.

Conclusion
The storage conditions of these antibiotics, especially the temperature of their conservation, could be responsible of the loss of their effectiveness. It is possible that, in the city of Lome, some resistances of bacteria to marketed antibiotics are due to inappropriate conservation conditions of these products.

Key words: Antibiotics, Conservation, Efficacy, Bacteria, Lome.


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