Introduction: After analysis of current reviews and research into current clinical tries, a novel combination therapy which is phased to tackle the pathophysiological events in the brain over time may be suggested which may provide more positive results in clinical trials, overcome some of the limits that current therapies in trial are facing, and improve ischemic stroke sufferers long-term recovery and outcome.
Method: Only those articles that provide original research were reviewed, such as primary research articles, cohort studies, and animal model studies and phase 1 clinical trial. Multiple electronic databases using a variety of outlined search terms were used to gather suitable papers. The sources used were Google Scholar, Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scientific Web Plus etc.
Result: The result of this review shows that the number of pre-clinical animal model studies for potential therapies after stroke outnumber clinical human trials on a ratio 2.6:1 (pre-clinical animal: clinical human). Therapies after TIA to prevent major stroke recurrence appear to be more advanced, with all potential therapies in phase 1 clinical trial for safety and efficacy.
Discussion: There are many trials which has shown potential for better stroke recovery and results from those studies support the safe and effective use of many chemical derivatives like 2-growth factor therapy initiated 24 to 48 hours after stroke onset, therapy using adenovirus-expressing heparin-binding epidermal growth factor which significantly enhanced recovery after ischemic stroke, human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for ischemic stroke, and monocyte-derived Multipotential cells which are potentially effective candidate for use in cell transplantation therapy for cerebral ischemia.
Key words: Ischemic stroke, Transient ischemic attack (TIA), Tissue remodeling, Tissue revascularization, Neuroprotection