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A study of heart rate variability among non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic parents

Tamilselvan Kuppusamy, Nirmala Natarajan, Manikandan Sathiyaseelan, Jayamala Annachira Kushalappa, Niveatha Santhanakrishnan.


Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an inheritable condition that runs in families as a disorder of impaired glycemic control and its complications. Among the complications of diabetes, autonomic neuropathy contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease states besides diabetic vascular complications. Sympathovagal imbalance is reported to be observed among the non-diabetic first-degree relatives of diabetic population.

Aims and Objectives: To assess the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in non-diabetic normotensive offspring of diabetic parents and infer the impairment in sympathovagal balance in them by comparing with the HRV findings of non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetic parents.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 30 healthy non-diabetic, normotensive volunteers with parental history of Type 2 diabetes and 30 non-diabetic normotensive volunteers without parental history of diabetes. The volunteers were between the age of 17 and 25 years with normal body mass index and no health condition that could influence the cardiovascular health. The basal cardiovascular parameters and a 5 min lead II electrocardiogram for short-term HRV analysis were recorded to assess the sympathovagal balance.

Results: The HRV analysis reveals a statistically significant increase in the sympathetic components and decreased parasympathetic components in the nondiabetic offspring of diabetic parents when compared to the non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetic parents.

Conclusion: From our study, it could be observed that the non-diabetic offspring of diabetic parents have enhanced sympathetic activity and attenuated vagal activity even in their non-diabetic state, thus inferring an early onset of sympathovagal imbalance that could predispose them to hypertension and its sequel.

Key words: Heart Rate Variability; Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Sympathovagal Imbalance






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