Achillea fragrantissima is a perennial herb used by Arabic Bedouin for the treatment of several pathologies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is usually associated with hyperlipidemia into what is nowadays known as the metabolic syndrome epidemic. Aim: is to evaluate the effects of alcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of A. fragrantissima in metabolically manipulated T2DM rats. Materials and Methods: Induction of T2DM in rats was through highfat diet (HFD) for twelve consecutive weeks followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The activities of both A. fragrantissima extracts were assessed in comparison with glibenclamide and fenofibrate as reference drugs. Results: Elevated blood glucose levels, serum lipid profile, liver functions and kidney functions witnessed a significant reduction by treatment with the extracts. Meanwhile, Oxidative stress markers (MDA, GPx and SOD), pro-inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-6 )and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) assessments recorded significant improvement after treatment with A. fragrantissima extracts.The results were also associated with improvement in histopathological examination of pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Seven phenolic compounds were isolated and identified in the ethyl acetate extracts fractions; three flavonoid glycosides, four flavonoid aglycones and a triterpene. Conclusions: The current study suggests that A. fragrantissima extract might be considered as a promising natural supplement for management of T2DM manifestations.
Key words: Achillea fragrantissima, Adhesion molecules, Antioxidant, Pro-inflammatory cytokines, T2DM, Chemical composition