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IJHRS. 2012; 1(2): 99-106

Microalbuminuria and Red Cell Distribution Width as Predictive Markers of Renal Involvement in Hypertension

Tharayil Kattil Jithesh, Riju Mathew, Vidyadharan Jayapal, Thankappan Vijayakumar.

Background: The adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in particular, progression to overt renal failure and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), can be prevented or delayed by early detection and appropriate treatment. Effective diagnosis and management of hypertension is a crucial component of such efforts.

Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the changes, if any, in red cell distribution width (RDW) and microalbuminuria in patients at different stages of Hypertension (HT) and to evaluate the usefulness of these markers in predicting the renal involvement.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 117 patients with clinically proved hypertension under treatment and 63 age and sex matched healthy adults, to evaluate the usefulness of red cell distribution width (RDW) and urine microalbumin, as predictive markers of renal involvement.

Results: A significant elevation in excretion of microalbumin was observed in patients at different stages of hypertension compared to the normal controls. RDW of the test group was significantly higher than that of the control group. When RDW was compared stage wise the value was significantly higher only in stage 2 compared to normal and stage 1 hypertensive patients.

Conclusion: The elevation of urine microalbumin and its association with elevated RDW, which is an emerging cardiovascular risk predictor, suggests endothelial dysfunction in chronic hypertensive patients. Hence periodic monitoring of these markers may be of use in predicting the renal involvement in hypertension.

Key words: Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, End Stage Renal Disease, Red Cell Distribution Width, Microalbuminuria

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