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Effect of antioxidant rich nutraceuticals on histological changes due to high fat diet induced obesity in rats

Suleiman A. Isa, Muazu G. Abubakar, Muhammed S. Abubakar, Muhammad A. Ubana, Abdullahi Dandare.

Abstract
Objective: Obesity is an important, multifaceted chronic disorder which has become one of the leading health problems globally as a result of its morbidity and mortality. The aim of this research was to induce obesity using high fat diet feeding and to assess the effect of treatment with antioxidant rich nutraceuticals in the pathology of the liver, kidney and heart.
Methods: Nutraceuticals were formulated using locally available foodstuffs (onions, garlic, tomatoes, lemon, palm oil and crayfish in the ratio of 5:5:2:4:2:2) based on recommended daily allowances (RDA). Obesity was induced using high fat diet feeding for ten weeks. Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 150-220 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into 4 group of 8 rats each: group I: normal, control; group II: high fat diet, untreated; group III: high fat diet treated with 250 mg of nutraceutical daily; group IV: high fat diet treated with 500 mg of nutraceutical daily for ten weeks. Sections of liver, kidney and heart were taken for histopathological study.
Results: The data obtained showed that high fat diet feeding significantly increased body mass and body mass index and was associated with an abnormal lipid distribution. Histopathological examination showed that high fat diet feeding was associated with hepatic, myocardial and renal necrosis, degeneration and congestion of associated blood vessels. However, treatment with antioxidant rich nutraceutical reverses the damage to near normal.
Conclusion: High fat diet induced obesity is associated with pathological changes in the heart, kidney and liver. Antioxidant rich nutraceuticals could provide a protective effect against pathological changes in obesity.

Key words: Body mass index, high fat diet, obesity, nutraceuticals



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