Introduction: Lung cancer is a neoplasm with the highest mortality rate in the world. The role of neoadjuvant therapy in patients with initially assessed borderline operable or inoperable lung cancer is to improve survival by downstaging the tumor and allowing surgical resection, as well as the potential treatment of micrometastatic disease. Aim: Establishing the justification and efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy after the initial assessment of operability in patients with borderline operable and inoperable histopathologically verified stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The retrospective study included 65 patients with initially assessed stage IIIA lung cancer, who underwent neoadjuvant therapy. After the cycles of neoadjuvant therapy, 19 patients who achieved the regression of the tumor underwent surgery. We analyzed the histological type of the tumor, extent, and prevalence of surgical resection, the status of regional lymph nodes, and the achieved R status. Results: Of the total number of patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy, after reevaluation of the disease, 19 patients (19/65, 29.23% of cases) achieved a clinical response, i.e. tumor downstaging. Of 19 patients who underwent surgery, 16 patients underwent surgical resection, while three patients underwent surgical exploration. The largest number of patients had N0 and N1 status (six patients each). R0 status was achieved in 14 patients (14/16, 87.5% of cases), while R1 in the remaining two. One patient had a fatal outcome. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant therapy plays an important role in the treatment of initially assessed borderline operable or inoperable lung cancers. By downstaging the tumor, it allows surgical resection and potential treatment of micrometastatic disease.
lung cancer, neoadjuvant therapy, lobectomy, inoperable cancer, pulmectomy.