Objective: To study the association of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with dyslipidemia in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate other associated risk factors.
Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine-1 (CREAM-1), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular biology Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) from Apr 2016 to Jun 2016.
Material and Method: Total 180 subjects were enrolled in two groups. Group I comprised of 90 patients of diabetic retinopathy and group II of 90 healthy normal controls. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were drawn and checked for blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins). Data collected was analyzed by SPSS version 22.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 56 ± 6 years and that of controls was 53 ± 7 years. Mean duration of DM was 14 ± 5 years. Mean systolic blood pressure of group-I was 146 ± 15 mm Hg compared to 127 ± mm Hg of group-II. Mean diastolic BP of patients was 93 ± 8 mm Hg while that of controls was 77 ± 6 mm Hg. Mean body mass index (BMI) of subjects of group-I was 28.8 ± 2.9 while for group-II, it was 25.1 ± 1.4. Mean fasting plasma glucose was 10.2 ± 3.4 mmol/l for group-I and 5.0 ± 0.6 mmol/l for group-II. HbA1c was also considerably higher for group-I with a mean of 7.2 ± 0.8% while for group-II, its mean was 5.2 ± 0.5. Total cholesterol (group-I 5.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l versus group-II 4.8 ± 0.6 mmol/l), triglycerides (group-I 3.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l and group-II 2.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l), and low density lipoproteins (group-I 3.08 ± 0.49 mmol/l and group-II 2.17 ± 0.3 mmol/l) of both the groups were compared and found significantly higher among patients of diabetic retinopathy. DR was positively correlated with poor glycemic control, hypertension, increasing age and dyslipidemia at highly significant p-value. There was no statistically significant difference for high density lipoproteins between the two groups.
Conclusion: Our study established statistically significant association of DR with increasing age, duration of DM, poor glycemic control, and BMI. Total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins were associated with diabetic retinopathy at a highly significant p-value. No significant association between high density lipoproteins and diabetic retinopathy was found.
Body mass index, Diabetic retinopathy, Dyslipidemia, Diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control.