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Comparison of development of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis in controlled and uncontrolled 50 cases of diabetes mellitus

Jayant Chauhan, Bhavesh Patel, Jitendra Sisodia, Yagnang Vyas, Tehzeeb Faruqui, Pankaj Panchal.


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the prominent preventable and treatable causes of death in developing world. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is chronic metabolic disorder and have rising trend of incidence and prevalence in developing world. When both diseases present together, it greatly increases risk of death among patients.

Objective: DM is one of the risk factors for development and relapse of TB which is also associated with development of multidrug-resistant TB or extended drug-resistance TB. Main purpose of this study is to quantify risk among DM patients by classifying into controlled and uncontrolled DM. By doing so, we can create awareness among DM patients for more sugar control to reduce risk for TB and help in global control of TB.

Materials and Methods: This is prospective analytical study was done on 50 patient of DM presented with respiratory symptoms at department of TB and Respiratory Medicine Department, Baroda Medical College and S.S.G. Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Analysis was done using Microsoft EXCEL 2007 software package.

Results: A total 50 patient of DM presented with respiratory symptoms was studied. Out of 50 DM patients, 36 (72%) are male, and 14 (28%) are female. 20 (40%) have uncontrolled DM, and 30 (60%) have controlled DM. Age group of 36-50 and 51-65 have most number of DM patients, that is, 18 (36%) each and most number of uncontrolled DM, that is, 7 (14%) each. On chest X-ray examination, 12 patients (24%) having lesion of X-ray and lesions are more found in middle and lower lung. On sputum examination, after X-ray shows 9 (18%) were sputum positive patients and 41 (82%) were sputum negative. Uncontrolled DM patients have more sputum positive result than controlled DM patients. As per our study, out of 12 chest X-ray positive patients, 9 (75%) patients have sputum positive results, and in uncontrolled DM, 8 (75%) patients have chest X-ray positive of total chest X-ray positive patients.

Conclusion: In our study, we found that DM is risk factor TB and if patient having uncontrolled DM than patients more prone to develop TB than controlled DM. More male DM patients in 36-50 years age group have uncontrolled DM with chest X-ray lesions and sputum positive results. It is important to screen patient with DM for TB for early diagnosis and treatment, particularly with uncontrolled DM.

Key words: Tuberculosis; Sputum Positive; Diabetes Mellitus

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