Home|Journals|Articles by Year

Directory for Medical Articles

Original Article

Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India

Ruby Kumar; Manoj Kumar.


Despite the fact that India has a long tradition of ophthalmic surgeries, her contribution in the field remains largely unrecognized by the world. Sushruta (1000-800 BC), the father of Indian surgery, lived much before Hippocrates (460-370 BC) and Galen (129-216 AD), and described various ophthalmic surgeries, including surgeries for trichiasis, distichiasis, and entropion, in his treatise Sushruta Samhita. Sushruta and subsequent authorities on the subject also advocated para-surgical procedures such as chemical and heat cautery apart from surgeries. Their surgical techniques were practised all over India for more than 3000 years. It is very likely that their surgical knowledge spread even beyond the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent and benefited the world at large including the Arab and Europe. Here we describe the techniques of surgical and para-surgical procedures for trichiasis, distichiasis, and entropion practiced in India until recent past before it was replaced by modern procedures at large.

Key words: Agni Karma ; Entropion; Kshara Karma; Pakshamakopa; Sushruta; Trichiasis

Full-text options

Share this Article

Online Article Submission
• ejmanager.com
• ojshosting.net

Do you want to use OJS for your journal ?
work with an experienced partner

Review(er)s Central
About BiblioMed
License Information
Terms & Conditions
Privacy Policy
Contact Us

The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.