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Thyroid function determinants, calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in adult male smokers in Calabar, Nigeria

Iya Eze Bassey, Uwem Okon Akpan, Omaleko Ekpele Elijah, Solomon Osang Bankong.


Cigarette smoke contains noxious substances associated with alteration in thyroid gland function and bone metabolism in smokers. Serum cotinine, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH), calcium, phosphate and vitamin D levels were estimated in 100 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The smokers were classified into light and moderate smokers based on smoking pack-years. Serum cotinine, T3, T4 and TSH were determined using ELISA, calcium and phosphate by colorimetric methods and Vitamin D by HPLC. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance, Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05. The mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), cotinine (p = 0.0001), T4 (p = 0.014) was significantly higher in smokers compared to non smokers. While vitamin D was significantly lower (p = 0.0001) in smokers compared to non smokers. There was however no significant difference (p

Key words: Cigarette smoking, Cotinine, Calcium, Phosphate, Thyroid function, Vitamin D

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