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Original Article



A study of etiology of secondary varicose veins

Kshitij Arun Manerikar, Chandradip Patil, Simran Bhatia, Gurjit Singh, Harshad Gawade.

Abstract
Introduction: Lower limb veins are most prone to having venous disorders – and varicose veins are the biggest issue. Varicose veins can be grouped into Primary or Secondary Varicose veins. Secondary Varicose veins are associated with acquired factors causing stasis and hypercoagulable state. This study addresses the various associated risk factors for secondary varicose veins such as age, sex, Body Mass Index (BMI), pregnancy, prolonged standing, tobacco use, and deep vein thrombosis history and family history of secondary varicose veins.
Methods: A prospective non-randomized study of fifty patients was carried out between August 2015 and July 2016. Demographic details of all patients were recorded. Detail history and examination of both lower limbs were performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated by measuring means, standard deviation (SD), and proportions with 95% confidence interval.
Results: Tobacco chewing in any form was the most common associated risk factor of secondary varicose vein in our study of 50 patients and it was observed in 46% of patients. We found that varicose veins were more common in males and it was especially predominant in the over fifty years of age. Amongst them, twenty patients were obese with body mass index of more than 25 kg/m2. Past history of varicose veins and treatment for same was not associated significantly with varicose veins prevalence. More than two numbers of pregnancies were found in 26% females with varicose veins.
Conclusion: We found that prolong standing, smoking (> 10 cigarettes/day), more than two pregnancies, and family history of deep venous thrombosis were some of the major associated risk factors for varicose veins. We couldn’t establish any strong association between previous history of deep venous thrombosis and varicose vein surgery with respect to recurrence of it. Among modifiable risk factors, tobacco chewing and smoking should be abandoned to decrease the incidence of varicose veins.

Key words: Body mass index, incidence, india, obesity, tobacco, varicose veins, veins, venous thrombosis



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