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A cross-sectional study to establish the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effect on maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women attending antenatal care outpatient department in tertiary care hospital

Munnaji Mavatkar, Vijay Singh, Sujata S Pol.




Abstract

Background: Incidence of comorbidities such as anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage, and preterm birth is high among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fetal complications include low-birth-weight babies, first trimester spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, intrauterine growth retardation, high rates of stillbirth and neonatal deaths, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, higher incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased perinatal mortality are also seen in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy causes fetal hypothyroidism which can result in irreversible brain damage.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effect on maternal outcome among pregnant women attending antenatal care outpatient department in tertiary care hospital.

Materials and Methods: The study comprised 245 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. Thyroid hormone levels and other routine blood investigation were estimated. Patients with thyroid dysfunction were assessed and treated depending on the severity. Subjects were followed until delivery.

Results: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was found to be 12.831%. 30% of the hypothyroid patients did not have any high-risk characteristics. Hypothyroidism was associated with recurrent miscarriage (P = 0.006).

Conclusions: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (12.831%) is high. Hypothyroidism was significantly associated with miscarriage.

Key words: Sub-clinical Hypothyroidism; Pregnant Women; Maternal Outcome; Fetal Outcome






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