Estrus detection has been cited as one of the most important factors affecting the reproductive success of artificial insemination programs. Various estrus synchronization protocols have been developed to bring a large percentage of groups of females into estrus at a predetermined time. Earlier protocols have involved controlling estrous cycle length in cattle either by extending the life span of the corpus luteum by the use of progestogens or shortening the life span of the corpus luteum by the use of Prostaglandins. The reduced fertility following the earlier synchronization protocols made it necessary to understand ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics in cattle. An increase in this basic understanding as well as the development of treatment regimes to manipulate ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics over the last decade have resulted in development of better estrus synchronization protocols based on a) elimination of the dominant follicle and initiation of new follicular wave, b) initiation of new follicular wave, synchronization of Ovulation and timed artificial insemination. These protocols are very promising and have the potential to enhance pregnancy rates and the success of artificial insemination programs.
Cattle, Synchronization of Estrus, Reproductive Efficiency, Buffalo
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