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Review Article



A1 versus A2 Milk- Impact on Human Health

Rajalaxmi Behera, Adhikari Sahu, Ajoy Mandal, Saroj Rai, Muthu Karunakaran, Tapas Kumar Dutta.

Abstract
Casein is the chief component of the milk proteins of which about 30-35 percent is beta-casein. The major beta- casein variants are A1 and A2. A2 beta-casein possesses proline at 67th position of its 229 amino acid chain while A1 beta casein has histidine at the respective position owing to a mutation that occurred in due course of time. Breeds like Jerseys, Asian and African cows produce A2 milk while Holsteins and Ayrshire predominantly produce A1 milk. Beta-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7) is a bioactive seven-amino peptide released by digestive enzymes exclusively from the A1-beta-casein protein. Several researchers have reported BCM-7 interacts with the human gastrointestinal tract, internal organs and brainstem. BCM7 adversely affects the immune response and is also considered as a risk factor for type 1diabetes. A2 milk is considered safe for human consumption. However, several other studies have found no relationship between A1 milk and the etiology of these diseases. Hence the present picture on A1vs A2 milk in concern to their health impacts is still unclear.

Key words: BCM-7. A2 Milk, A1 Milk


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