Background: Unilateral spinal anesthesia is used to limit the spread of block. The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic changes and complications in unilateral spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia below the T10 sensory level in unilateral surgeries. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial in total 120 patients were randomly divided into a unilateral spinal anesthesia group (Group S) and an epidural anesthesia group (Group E). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rates were measured before and immediately after the administration of spinal or epidural anesthesia and then at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, and 30-min intervals. The rates of prescribed ephedrine and intraoperative respiratory arrest were recorded, in addition to postoperative nausea and vomiting, puncture headaches, and back pain during the first 24 h after the surgery. Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP values initially showed a statistically significant downward trend in both groups (p = 0.001). The prevalence of hypotension in Group S was lower than in Group E, and the observed difference was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The mean heart rate change in Group E was greater than in Group S, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.68). The incidence of prescribed ephedrine in response to a critical hemodynamic situation was 5.1% (n = 3) and 75% (n = 42) in Group S and Group E, respectively (p = 0.0001). The incidence of headaches, back pain, and nausea/vomiting was 15.3%, 15.3%, and 10.2% in Group S and 1.8%, 30.4%, and 5.4% in Group E (p = 0.017, 0.07, and 0.49, respectively). Conclusion: Hemodynamic stability, reduced administration of ephedrine, a simple, low-cost technique, and adequate sensory and motor block are major advantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia.
Key words: Spinal anesthesia, Epidural anesthesia, Hemodynamic, Unilateral