Home|Journals|Articles by Year Follow on Twitter| Subscribe to List

Directory for Medical Articles

Open Access

Original Research

Application of Multivariate Analysis in the Evaluation of Metals Distribution in Soil from Awwal Mining Site Kebbi, Nigeria

Girgisu Shehu, Isa Baba Koki.

Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were utilized for the evaluation of metal distribution and variations in the soil at Awwal mining site. PCA was used to determine a reduced number of three principal components (PC) indicating up to 82 % of the total variation in the soil samples. The result of FA justifies the results of the PCA obtained. HCA classified the soil samples in the sites into two clusters, with cluster one having the higher metal levels, while cluster two had low metal levels but characterized with dominant toxic heavy metals (As and Pb). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that natural percentage abundance in soil and mineral composition of the mining ores were the main sources of the metals under study. Due to high metal levels in the soils, disposal and management of the mining waste/tailings and rehabilitation of the mining site after closure of mining should be done with care and caution to avoid leaching of the toxic metals to surface and underground water for the health and safety of the neighboring community.

Key words: Soil, Metals, Mining, Multivariate analysis, Awwal

Full-text options

Full-text Article

Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science


BiblioMed Home
Follow ScopeMed on Twitter
Author Tools
eJPort Journal Hosting
About BiblioMed
License Information
Terms & Conditions
Privacy Policy
Contact Us

The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
ScopeMed is a Database Service for Scientific Publications. Copyright ScopeMed Information Services.