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Lifestyle risk factors for coronary artery disease among young male patients of urban and rural Dakshina Kannada - A cross-sectional study

Grrishma Balakrishnan, Anaswara Sree, Shobith Bangera, Aswini Dutt, Padmini Thalenjeri, Kalpana Balasubramaniyam.

Background: There has been an increase in morbidity and mortality due to coronary artery disease (CAD) in developing countries due to multiple risk factors. India’s concern is not only the high burden of CAD but also its impact on the productive workforce aged 25-55 years in both rural and urban population.

Aims and Objective: To study the demographic profile and lifestyle determinants among young male patients with CAD.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural field practice area of a private medical college in Dakshina Kannada. One hundred male CAD patients in the age group 25-55 years were asked to answer a pretested validated questionnaire to assess their demographic and lifestyle risk factors leading to CAD.

Results: Out of 100 patients, 55 were rural and 45 were from urban area. Significant numbers of urban CAD patients were graduates lived in independent house and used Liquefied Petroleum Gas as cooking fuel, while most rural patients were less literate. No significant difference was seen in physical activity. The source of drinking water in significant majority of urban CAD patients is from the tap in the house. Rural CAD patients used significantly more tobacco products. Most urban patients consumed nonvegetarian and fast food and had higher total caloric intake.

Conclusion: The lifestyle differences seen between rural and urban population have drastically decreased in the recent time because of urbanization and globalization. Health education regarding appropriate lifestyle changes required to reduce the burden of CAD in India is the need of the hour.

Key words: Alcohol; Coronary Artery Disease; Demographic Profile; Diet; Lifestyle; Smoking

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