The beneficial microbes plays important role in medical, industrial and agricultural processes. The precious microbes belong to different groups including archaea, bacteria and fungi which can be sort out from different habitat such as extreme environments (acidic, alkaline, drought, pressure, salinity, temperatures); associated with plants (epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric) and human. The beneficial microbes exhibited multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes such as N2-fixation; solubilization of micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium and zinc); production of siderophores, antagonistic substances, antibiotic, auxin and gibberellins. These microbes could be applied as biofertilizers for native as well as crops growing at diverse extreme habitat. Microbes with PGP attributes of N2-fixation, P and K-solubilization could be used at place of NPK chemical fertilizers. Agriculturally important microbes with Fe and Zn-solubilizing attributes can be used for biofortification of micronutrients in different cereal crops. The biofertilizers are an eco-friendly technology and bioresources for sustainable agriculture and human health. Generally, the concentrations of micronutrient in different crops are not adequate for human nutrition in diets. Hence, consumption of such cereal based diet may result in micronutrient malnutrition and related severe health complications. The bio-fortification approach is getting much attention to increase the availability of micronutrients especially Fe and Zn in the major food crops. The beneficial microbes can be used as probiotic as a functional foods for human health. Probiotics microbes such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Methanobrevibacter, Methanosphaera and Saccharomyces are increasingly being used as dietary supplements in functional food products. The microbes with beneficial properties could be utilized for sustainable agriculture and human health.
Key words: Biodiversity; Biofortification; Malnutrition; Microbiomes; Probiotic