This study investigated the in vitro comparison between Asiatic acid liposomes and surface-modified liposomes of Asiatic acid (coated by chitosan and DSPE MPEG separately) to treat Alzheimer's disease. The optimised formula was obtained using design expert software, and liposomes were formulated as per the thin-film hydration method. Chitosan-coated AA liposomes and Stealth AA liposomes were fabricated using electrostatic interaction. The prepared formulations were evaluated for compatibility, liposomal vesicle size, drug entrapment, drug content, dispersibility index, and surface morphology (TEM and AFM). Compared to AA, AAL and SAAL demonstrated sustained-release and improved drug release rates, with 97.00 ± 0.56% and 86.42 ± 0.38% released in 18 hours. The CAAL showed an 85.45 ± 0.43%, better than the drug release rate in 24 hours. The ex vivo AA permeation from CAAL was better than the other two forms of liposomes. The stability data, which signifies the vesicle size of the liposomes, drug content, and EE% of CAAL and SAAL, were consistent and showed that CAAL was more stable in simulated gastric fluid. This study suggested that chitosan-coated AA liposomes showed better stability and sustained drug release than the AAL and SAAL.
Key words: Liposome, Chitosan, Asiatic acid, Stealth, Stability