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Review Article



Fundamentals of Zinc, Manganese and Copper in the Metabolism of the Rumen and Immune Function

Habib-Ur-Rehman, Munir Ahmed, Muhammad Arif Kakar, Mir Ahmad, Siraj Ahmad and Zafar Ahmad.

Abstract
Abstract. Trace minerals are of basic needs by the body in trace amounts, ranging from 0.10 to 50.0 mg/kg of dry matter in the diets of bovine animals. These trace elements are essential for all biochemical processes of the body that supports the growth and the appropriate maintenance. For example, copper is necessary for the function of the superoxide dismutase and in the elimination of toxic by-products of metabolic pathways. The elimination of these toxic by-products allows metabolism to perform effectively, uninhibited by damaging oxygen free radicals. Manganese, an important trace mineral, essential for development, metabolism, and the antioxidant system and has a slight effect on stimulating the activity of the Urease. Zinc, an important trace mineral for the enzymatic function, help in the regulation of the production of nucleic acid, the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein synthesis, thus providing a stable framework for the Development. The immune system is part of the defense of the host against the destructive forces from the outside of the body, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, or of the Interior, such as the malignant cells or those who produce auto-antibodies. This system is composed of two branches: the innate or non-specific of the immune system, and the adaptive immune system or specific. In this review paper, an effort has been established to examine the effects of supplements of minerals in the metabolism of rumen, the effects on immune function in different species of animals.

Key words: Trace Elements, Rumen Metabolism, Immune Function, Performance, Reproductive Health and Rumen Fermentation






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The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.