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Review Article

Comparative Assessment of Periodontal Health in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

Rithanya.P, Balaji Ganesh S, Subhashree.R.

Periodontitis refers to the inflammation of the tooth supporting tissues. It further results in complications like irreversible loss of bone and periodontal attachment loss. Menopause generally occurs at the fifth decade of life. Systemic changes are also manifested at menopause which may further result in oral changes in the individuals. During post menopause the gingival epithelium becomes thinner and gets more prone to osteoporosis, decreased saliva and inflammation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal health among premenopausal and post menopausal women. This study was carried out in a hospital setting (single centred study). Total number of sample size included 233 patients, who had visited Saveetha dental college, Chennai from June 2019 to April 2020. The inclusion criteria of the study was premenopausal women (aged 25 to 45 years) and post menopausal women (aged 55 to 75 years). Data collected includes age, menopausal status and different types of periodontal diseases. The collected data was tabulated using excel spreadsheet and the data was analysed using SPSS software version 19. The statistical test used in this study was the Chi square test. Generalised chronic periodontitis was most commonly present among postmenopausal women of age group 55 to 65 years. Generalised chronic gingivitis was more commonly seen in the premenopausal women of age group 25 to 45 years, which was statistically significant. According to the overall study results, the post menopausal women were commonly manifested with generalised chronic periodontitis compared to the premenopausal women. The primary cause of periodontitis is presence of local factors and impaired immune response. The imbalance in oestrogen hormones during menopause is one of the major factors that contributes to periodontal damage.

Key words: Periodontitis, Post-menopausal women, Premenopausal women

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