Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has many complications, in which Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the major one. Blindness among working age people was due to DR. Retinal angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability is the pathogenesis behind vision loss. Polyol pathway, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), oxidative stress etc are the pathophysiological pathways which are discussed in this review for better understanding. PKC inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, RAAS blockers, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, antioxidants and fibrates which are the used for the better treatment for DR is also elaborated in this review.
Key words: Diabetic retinopathy, current therapies, emerging therapies,retinal neovascularisation, Anti-VEGF agents