Background: Diabetes is a common cause of end-stage renal disease and nephropathy, which is characterized by abnormal renal function with reduction of glomerular filtration and rise in the level of serum urea and creatinine.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare serum urea and creatinine levels in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics and further correlate the serum creatinine and urea levels in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic subjects with duration of diabetes and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c).
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum urea and creatinine levels in diabetic subjects, both Type 1 and Type 2 attending diabetic clinic and non-diabetic subjects in a tertiary hospital. 72 male subjects in each group of age 35-55 years were selected for the study. Fasting, post-meal blood sugar levels, and HbA1c of all the subjects in the study were determined. Results were interpreted by one-way analysis of variance test. Association of serum urea and creatinine levels with HbA1c and duration of illness in all diabetic subjects was analyzed by applying Pearsons correlation coefficient.
Results: There was statistically significant increase in serum urea and creatinine levels in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects. There was a correlation of levels of serum urea and creatinine with HbA1c levels and duration of diabetes in Type 1 diabetics but not with Type 2 diabetic study group.
Conclusion: Serum urea and creatinine are simple and useful biomarkers which can serve as predictor tests for assessing kidney functions (nephropathy) in diabetic patients.
Key words: Blood Urea; Creatinine; Type 1 Diabetes; Type 2 Diabetes; Nephropathy; Glycosylated Hemoglobin