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Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Amudalat Ranti Lawal, Umar Bolaji Olayinka, Ramat A. Murtadha, Ayinla Aziz, Emmanuel O. Etejere.


Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale are spices with great potentials as food additives and medicinal values. In this study, the phytochemical and proximate composition of the two spices were evaluated and compared. The results of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenols in both the bulb of Allium sativum and rhizome of Zingiber officinale. The bulb of Allium sativum contained significantly higher amount of saponins, tannins and phenols when compared to the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Zingiber officinale was very rich in glycosides and tannins when compared to the bulb of Allium sativum. Terpenoids was the highest phytochemical in both spices while phenol was least in amount. The proximate composition of both spices showed moisture, protein, ash, fat fibre, and carbohydrate contents with values that ranged between 60.35 ± 0.23-76.48 ± 0.05%, 7.52 ± 0.10-10.15 ± 0.02%, 1.51±0.05-1.54 ± 0.05%, 1.02 ± 0.02-4.29 ± 0.06%, 2.13 ± 0.06-2.64 ±0.08%, 7.59 ± 0.23-24.82 ± 0.08% respectively. Proximate composition such as protein and carbohydrate were significantly higher in bulb of allium sativum as compared to the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Significant differences were not recorded for all the other proximate composition except for moisture. Bulb of Allium sativum was richer in energy content than the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. The present investigation therefore indicated that variations exist in both the phytochemical and proximate composition of the two spices. However, both spices have the potentials of improving the health of mankind when consumed. In this instance, their use in food recipes should be encouraged.

Key words: Terpenoids Flavonoids, Carbohydrate, protein Moisture, Garlic and Ginger

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